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        传统村落

        “人文河南,古村乡韵”系列(2):红石砌寨墙 临沣遗古风

        发布日期:2015-02-11???点击量:


        时间:2013年01月08日   文章来源:《大河报》

        郏县一古村因防洪而幸存,堪称中原村寨“活化石”
        红石砌寨墙 临沣遗古风
        寨内有400多间明清民居,朱家大宅院位于寨内龟背形地貌中心
          当年朱“寨主”是个热心肠,村民至今传诵朱家乐善好施的故事





        寨墙



        临沣寨斑驳的古寨门



        砖雕



        老宅



        朱家宅院




        村中民居



        临沣寨古寨墙全长1100多米

          □记者 李岩 文 李文波 图

          提起寨子,很多人都会想到寨墙,要么土夯,要么砖砌,要么石堆,毕竟“没有寨墙,咋能称寨呢”?由于岁月变迁,很多寨子的寨墙已经不复存在,成为人们永远的记忆。

          难得的是,在郏县堂街镇,因防洪需要,一处由红石砌成的寨墙得以完好保存,寨内的建筑很多也是原汁原味,堪称中原村寨的“活化石”。

          这就是有“汝河南岸第一府”、“古村寨博物馆”、“中原第一红石古寨”之美誉,被评定为第一批国家级生态博物馆、第七批全国文物重点?;さノ?、第二批国家级历史文化名村、第一批国家级传统村落等国字头殊荣的郏县临沣寨。

          中原有古寨 堪称“活化石”

          2012年12月26日下午,从郏县堂街镇通往临沣寨方向的道路上,路窄车少的景象与普通乡道并无二致,但一拐入寨口,古色古香的寨墙、寨门楼立马会让你感受到它的不同。

          远处望去,弧形的小河圈绕着里边的石头寨墙,高耸的门楼矗立在拱形的寨门之上??榭樘跏?、座座垛口加上寨门上厚重的石刻铭文,足以将很多人拉入时光隧道。

          这里是临沣寨的正门,也叫东门。门头上硕大的楷体“溥滨”二字则由一整块条石凹刻而成,苍劲有力,作者名字已经模糊。

          溥滨门外,埋在路旁的一块由建设部、国家文物局2005年11月发布的“中国历史文化名村”石牌异常醒目。

          寨门外,弯弯的护寨河沿着弧形的寨墙向两旁延伸,内侧的河岸在寨墙下形成通道,其部分路段铺设的地板石,已被踩得溜光。

          除了溥滨门,临沣寨还有西门“临沣”门、南门“来曛”门。这两个寨门的题名同为楷体,均留有“朱俊甫”的落款。

          对三个寨门的来历,堂街镇文化站站长、临沣寨?;た旃抑魅我亮了?,在明清时期,坐落在北汝河南岸的临沣寨,寨东、寨西分别有利溥、沣溪两水流过,汇入北汝河,溥滨、临沣的寨门名字也由此而来,而“来曛”则取自《诗经》“曛风南来”一句,与“紫气东来”异曲同工,寓意吉祥。

          漫步寨墙,触摸着条石垒砌的斑驳墙体,踏着石头铺就的小道,脚下这个有221户、894人的村子的历史沧桑感油然而生。
          

          古寨三门,曾阻日军入侵曾挡洪水入寨

          尹亮亮说,现在的寨墙全长1100多米,均为外石内土结构,石材均取材于50多公里外的紫云山上,天然红石,材质优良;中间的填土则全部来自开挖的护城河,“现在,除南段一些地方出现坍塌外,其余保存完好”。

          与很多城寨为方形、四个城门的形制不同,临沣寨历来只有3个寨门,寨内村民常说的西门,其实在西北方向,而南门则在西南方向。究其成因,则有地势、八卦和风水等说。

          除南门来曛门被毁不复存在外,临沣寨溥滨、临沣两个寨门均由厚约四指的榆木宽板拼成,外包数毫米厚的带状铁皮。每条铁皮与铁皮接合处,都密密麻麻地打着成排的蘑菇形大铆钉,做工相当严谨。

          每个寨门后,均有能贯通至门楼墙体内的粗大门闩洞。虽然门闩已经不在,可以想见,当年如果门闩堵上,想把大寨门撞开,谈何容易。

          寨门铁皮上,存有很多锐器扎入的小坑。按照76岁的村民朱小根的说法,这是上世纪40年代抗日战争时期侵华日军攻寨时,被刺刀扎或者机枪打的,“这层大铁皮,对付冷兵器,还是非常有效的”。

          寨门保存最完好的,要算临沣门了,它也是临沣寨名称的由来。该处寨门靠近地面的门板、铁皮都基本保存完好,左右两扇大门中央的两块铁皮上,还各刻有竖写的“同治元年”、“岁在壬戌”字样。虽然字迹锈蚀,但它也成为临沣寨重修于1862年的明证。

          仔细观察可以发现,临沣寨每个寨门楼的内侧寨墙上,都设置有水槽,通向寨门上方。“这是防止敌方火攻的一个巧妙设计。从里边灌水,可以直接浇在城门上,达到灭火的目的。”尹亮亮说。

          在临沣寨的三个寨门外,两侧均加砌有两道石槽,有什么用呢?尹亮亮讲,这是当年的水闸,主要用于封堵洪水,“因为临沣寨四周河道纵横,地势低洼,很容易被水淹。有了这道水闸,一旦遭遇大水,可以用木闸板插入石槽内,里边用沙袋填堵,防止洪水入寨”。

          16个拴马石,依稀可见朱家当年辉煌

          临沣门旁,一座部分墙体已嵌入寨墙的小庙粗看起来并不起眼,但经指点奥妙顿现:它的两侧前窗均系由一整块红石镂刻而成,特别是9根石质窗棂,足以与木质窗棂乱真。

          “这是咸丰二年重修的关帝庙。”尹亮亮说,古代皇家窗户采用13棂,虽然关公被称帝,但清朝皇帝还是只认他的“汉寿亭侯”之名,窗户只能用9棂。

          站在寨墙上,寨内错落有致的青砖瓦屋一座连着一座,甚是壮观。尤其是一些愈加古老的房子,愈显坚实,反倒是那些较新建的房子,不少已是残垣断壁,破败不堪。

          在方圆1.5平方公里的临沣寨内,不管是从寨墙上还是寨内主要通道南大街上看,位于寨内龟背形地貌中心的朱紫贵、朱振南、朱紫峰三兄弟宅院在寨内400多间明清民居中,都是最为高大、最为考究,保存得也最为完好。

          走近朱家宅院,一字排开的临街大门楼威武高耸,配合精美的砖雕、石雕、木雕、彩绘以及条石大台阶,更显气派。尤其是门旁16个磨得光亮的拴马石,依稀可见朱家人当年辉煌。

          朱家宅院,建于大清道光二十九年、占地面积2516平方米、号称“汝河南岸第一府”的清代盐运知事朱紫峰官宅——朱镇府最为精美,至今仍保存着东、中、西三套各五进深的院落格局,雕梁画栋,还有马屋、厨房、大厅、绣楼、茶房、账房等功能分区,规模宏大。

          在朱小根的记忆里,朱家门前的南大街是当年东进襄城、西抵宝丰、南下叶县、北上禹州的重要商道,往来客商很多。朱家历来都会在门前摆放青石板,放上几碗热茶,喝完就由茶房添满,免费供路人饮用。

          在朱宅后院,一株树龄500多年的大皂角树下,朱家当年的长工——今年88岁的王金榜和80岁的申变老两口依然在老屋居住。申老太太说,老伴当年无家可归,流落到临沣寨,被朱家人收留,做种地的长工,从而解决了住房和吃饭问题。

          “朱家人可不错啦,有人逃荒到这儿,朱家人就分给他们60来亩地种,收成好了才要点地租。”申老太太说,朱家还在寨子里办了义塾,常年免费供应附近孩子上学读书。

          今年73岁的村民王璋曾在朱家茶房务工。他说,注重积德行善的朱家,至今在厢房两侧的门楣上,还留存有木刻的“迁善”、“补过”家训。

          明清古民居,这儿全都有

          “靠盐业发家的朱家人,当年是方圆百里的名人,仅房屋占地就达到了四五十亩,方圆十几里都是人家的土地。”尹亮亮说,实际上,临沣寨就是朱家的私家大宅院,后来修寨墙,只不过是朱家为了?;ぷ约业牟撇樟?。

          走在临沣寨内,说起这个处在古商道旁的寨子的故事,很多老年人都能惟妙惟肖地说上一大通。

          “你看看这一大一小俩枪眼,都是重机枪打的。”在溥滨门口,朱小根指着出现两个小坑的“溥滨”二字和寨墙上的多个弹痕说,日军南下追赶国民党军队时,一看这里易守难攻最终也放弃了,“寨墙、寨河还是很有用的”。

          朱小根说,解放临沣寨时,解放军接连在溥滨门下放置了两个炸药包想炸开寨门,但都瞎火,“寨里民团后来挂白旗投了降”。

          虽然历经岁月洗礼、战火纷扰,但是临沣寨能比较完好地保存下来,还要归功于它的防洪功能。在上世纪六十年代的“破四旧”运动中,有太多的寨墙、城墙被拆除,但这里因地势太低,遭遇洪水而幸免被拆。

          2002年,中国古建筑学家、国家文物局古建筑专家组组长罗哲文等专家发现临沣寨时,给予了极高评价:“临沣寨民居建筑从明至清,在时代上没有缺环。它们集中地出现在一个村落中,这在中国实属罕见,填补了中国古建筑在村寨方面的空白。”

          如今,临沣寨的?;す婊?、建设规划已通过并正在推进。按照“修旧如旧”的原生态?;ぴ?,也许在不久的将来,随着寨内古民居的修缮、寨外芦苇荡的恢复以及村寨各项基础设施的完善,这个魅力古村将更放异彩。

        版权所有:中原古民居 豫ICP备15001955号

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