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        中原古道研究会

        洛阳八关系列之(8)小平津关:黄河险渡境已迁

        发布日期:2016-07-10???点击量:

          杨沟古渡话船运

          在寻访小平津关之前,我查了一些资料,多数资料称关址在孟津县会盟镇花园村西北,小平津就是后来的花园渡。但也有人认为,孟津、偃师与巩义交界的杨沟渡,有可能是历史上的小平津。

          再看小平津关的名字,虽然很多资料称其是由于地位“仅次于孟津关”而得名,但这只是其中一个因素,它还应当与平阴、平县的地名有关。据史料记载,汉时河南郡设有平阴、平县,位置在今孟津县东北、偃师市西北一带。这样算来,杨沟渡和花园渡都在这个范围内。

          说实话,这让我有些犯难:孟津渡在孟津县会盟镇扣马村,而杨沟渡在扣马村东,花园渡在扣马村西,两者都分布在黄河南岸,与孟津渡相距不过两三公里。要不,这两个地方都去看看?

          上周三早上,我从洛阳出发,先去寻找杨沟渡。杨沟渡所在的杨沟自然村位于孟津县、偃师市与巩义市交界,据当地人讲,这里曾是重要的古渡口,以前有十几户人家在此以摆渡为生?;坪庸非判藓煤?,没人坐船了,渡口渐渐荒废,这些人家为了生活方便,遂于20世纪80年代整体从沟里迁出,并入偃师市邙岭乡周山村。

          周山村距杨沟渡不远,我来到这里,看到几名老人在村边坐着,便上前打听当年渡口的情况。“你问对人了!这位是当年杨沟渡口的理事长,渡口的事他最清楚!”几个老人向我推荐一位名叫周西的老先生。

          周老先生已87岁高龄,看上去十分儒雅,只是听力有些衰退,我们的谈话大多要由他的儿子进行“翻译”。他不紧不慢地说:“上个世纪五六十年代,我在渡口当了8年理事长。那时候,每年腊月到春节最忙,一天有八九百人过河。除了河北岸孟县的人,温县、博爱的人也都从这儿过。”

          老人记忆最深刻的,还是两次从偃师车站往孟县(今孟州)运黄豆的事儿:“一次1200万斤,一次600万斤,都是榨油用的。偃师的船运不及,只好把孟津、吉利的船都调来了。”

          那时候的黄河水深浪大,船运当然是有风险的。老人说,1958年黄河涨水,他们7天没敢行船,河滩上原来搭有供人住宿及存放物品的庵棚,全被大水冲走了;1964年,河里还发生了翻船事故。“这里不能用小船,小船容易出事。”他说。

          “过去,黄河就在山边,水比现在大多了。冬天有冰时船不敢过,就让客人住到土窑里等着。”旁边一个60多岁的村民说,杨沟自然村很多上年纪的人都撑过船。

          偃师市文物专家王竹林先生认为,杨沟渡自古是洛阳通往黄河的重要渡口,东汉末年洛阳八关之一的小平津关,遗址可能就在这里。后来,许多革命者和抗日志士也是从这里北渡黄河,奔向了延安或太行山抗日根据地。

          花园渡口水无声

          杨沟自然村北,以前黄河水到过的地方,如今留下了一片广阔的滩地,中间一条大路直通黄河,西边属孟津县,东边属巩义市。

          汽车沿着这条路驶向黄河边,一路坑洼不平,灰土满天。这里的滩地上种了不少西瓜,一眼望去绿莹莹的,田里搭着庵棚,瓜农们正在忙碌,有车经过时,才偶尔抬头看一下。

          终于到河边了!虽然旁边有人在挖沙作业,河风徐徐吹来,还是令人神清气爽。我正向对岸眺望,一个中年人走了过来,他是偃师市牛庄的,可能在附近工作,正准备坐船到河对岸的孟州吃饭。“杨沟渡?大概就在这附近吧。这滩地是孟津县的,挖沙的是巩义人。”他还没说上几句,就有人喊要开船了,“过去摆渡有规矩,不带女的上船,要不就邀你一块儿去吃饭了。”他说完便匆匆上船离岸,直奔对岸的美食而去。“摆渡还有这规矩?”我不解地问当地人李先生,他说:“别听他忽悠,过去是有这规矩,说艄公摆渡时不能带女的上船,但并不是指客人。”我哭笑不得。

          时近中午,我离开杨沟渡,准备去花园渡。沿河岸向西没走多远,我便看到了一个挨一个的荷塘,仿佛到了江南,原来已到孟津县会盟镇扣马村了。从扣马村继续向西,我找人简单问了路,很快到了花园村西北的黄河边。这里河坝平整,风景宜人,黄委会河务局就设在附近。

          70多岁的李林松老人和老伴刚在河滩收完麦子,准备回家吃饭。他说,我要找的花园渡就是这里。“我父亲就是玩船的,我从七八岁开始,就跟着父亲在船上,对这一带的情况很熟悉。”他说。

          不过,在李林松老人看来,黄河上的那些渡口,位置并不是一成不变的。“一般来说,渡口都设在水流平缓的地方。比如花园渡设在这里,隔段时间,这里水面变宽了,水流变急了,就要挪一个地方,但渡口的名字不变。”他说,花园渡是黄河孟津段的一个古渡口,直到黄河公路桥建成才废弃。这里河面窄的时候,半天时间船就能到对岸;河面宽的时候,用一天时间也不一定能过去。他说:“记得有时候还要用锚将船固定起来,在河心过一夜呢!”

          孟津县政协原副主席孙顺通先生就是花园村人,他说,小平津关的位置在花园村西北,也就是今天的花园渡附近。

          我离开大坝,走了百余米就到黄河边。河水无声,缓缓流淌,岸边野花绽放,鸟鸣啁啾,有三三两两的人坐在那里钓鱼,或者只是休息一会儿,聊聊天。河中有沙洲,远远望去,是一抹浓得化不开的绿。这样宁静美好的场面,令人不由想起《诗经》中的诗句:“关关雎鸠,在河之洲……”昔日厮杀声震天的古战场,早已离我们远去。

          险渡自古争战地

          历史上,小平津关与孟津关一起肩负着守卫洛阳北大门的重任,不少影响历史走向的重大事件曾在这里发生。

          据史料记载,汉灵帝中平元年(公元184年)三月,大将军何进置小平津关。次年八月,宦官张让杀死何进,袁术攻入宫中,中军校尉袁绍对宦官大开杀戒,杀死2000余人。惊慌失措的张让劫持少帝刘辩,连夜逃向小平津,眼看追兵赶到,张让无路可走,投河自尽,董卓将少帝刘辩迎回洛阳。

          当时,河南太守王匡屯泰山兵于黄河北岸,准备除掉董卓。董卓闻讯,先在平阴津(黄河古渡口,今孟津境内)布下疑兵,暗中派精锐部队于小平津渡河,绕到王匡军背后发动攻击,大破泰山兵。

          西晋怀帝永嘉五年(公元311年)六月,汉赵始安王刘曜攻陷洛阳,怀帝司马炽被俘。司徒傅祗设行台于河阴县,屯小平津,征召兵员,以图复晋,汉赵刘粲以步骑10万攻克小平津。

          清世祖顺治元年(公元1664年)十二月,豫亲王多铎率军自花园渡(小平津)过黄河,克虎牢关、洛阳,进逼陕西……

          看来,小平津关确为黄河险渡,并非浪得虚名。而小平津关附近,还有一个因首建浮桥而闻名的富平津。关于富平津的位置,历来说法也不一致,有史料记载,孟津关又名富平津关,其位置应在孟津渡;还有一种说法,富平津是另外一个渡口,与花园渡相距不远。不管怎么样,西晋时杜预在这里架起了黄河上第一座浮桥——河桥,却是大家公认的事实。

          杜预是扫平东吴的大将军,战功赫赫,同时也是《春秋左传》的注释者,可谓文武双全。他是唐代大诗人杜甫的先祖,死后葬在今偃师首阳山下,也算与洛阳很有缘分。

          晋武帝泰始十年(公元274年),杜预在富平津上“造舟为梁,连舟为桥,沟通南北,便输天下”。河桥建成了,虽然只是以舟相连的浮桥,也足以震动朝野。晋武帝为此举行了庆功会,并向杜预敬酒说:“非君,此桥不立。”

          如今,洛阳向北过黄河,有焦枝铁路复线桥、黄河公路桥、小浪底专用公路桥,人们通行十分方便。杜预在富平津上建的浮桥早已完成了自己的使命,隐藏到了历史深处。

          其实,东汉末年的洛阳八关何尝不是如此?当时关乎朝廷命运的险关要隘,也没能挡住朝代更迭的步伐。八关之中,除了汉函谷关、古辕关遗址尚存,大谷关、伊阙关位置可以确定之外,广成关、旋门关、孟津关、小平津关只有大概方位,它们在历史上的真实模样,还有待进一步考证。本系列只是抛砖引玉,能引起人们对它们的关注,便足够了。(记者 张广英)

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