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        中原古道研究会

        伊阙关:两山对峙扼门户(洛阳八关)

        发布日期:2016-07-10???点击量:

          伊阙关位于今龙门山和香山的阙口,是古时洛阳的南大门,一直是兵家必争之地,于东汉时正式成为洛阳八关之一。据《旧唐书》记载:唐武德三年(公元620年)七月,李世民亲率重兵北据邙山,派将军史万宝率兵“自宜阳南据龙门”,遂攻取洛阳。今日伊阙关处,建有石拱桥1座,是龙门石窟重要的参观通道之一。

          1、洪水苦黎民龙门应声开

         

          在洛阳城南12公里处,有一座名山曰龙门山,伊河由南向北穿龙门而过。其中,河东的香山,主峰海拔303.5米,因盛产香葛而得名;河西的龙门山,主峰海拔263.9米。

          隔河相望的香山、龙门山,正是古代伊阙关的所在地。

          关于伊阙的形成,还流传了一些传说,其中流传最广的是“龙门开不开”。

          据传,龙门山原来是条东西走向的青石山。山南是一个四面高、中间低的盆地,盆地内土地肥沃、物产丰富。但是由于雨水没有出路,水越积越多,淹没了良田,冲毁了村庄,导致大量百姓流离失所。

          在青石山北,住着一对母子,母亲纺花织布,儿子则上山替人放羊。有一天,放羊娃躺在树下歇晌,依稀听到一个老头询问:“龙门开不开?”但他一睁眼,老头就消失得无影无踪。如此一连数日,他感觉奇怪,便将此事告诉了母亲。母亲心想,莫非是神仙想打开山口,拯救山南的百姓?便对儿子说:“如果再有人问‘龙门开不开’,你就说‘开’!”

          次日,天刚晌午,放羊娃便躺在树下假睡。这时,他又听到有人询问:“龙门开不开?”放羊娃便毫不犹豫地大声答:“开!”

          随后,只听一声巨响,地动山摇,巍峨的青石山突然裂开了一个大口子,河水奔流而下,最终形成了伊阙两山夹一水的格局。

          2011年,“龙门传说”入选市非物质文化遗产名录。

          2、洛阳南大门兵家必争地

          作为洛阳的南大门,伊阙关自古乃兵家必争之地。

          据有关史料记载,早在周公建立成周城时,伊阙关就是城南重要的关隘。春秋时期,周王室发生内乱“赵鞅(人名)使女宽(人名)守阙塞,即此”。

          战国后期,秦国为打开东进的中原通道,秦将白起在伊阙歼灭韩、魏联军24万人。这就是历史上以少胜多的著名战役之一——伊阙之战。

          据《史记》记载:作为战国七雄之一的秦国,任用商鞅主持变法,国力日渐强盛。为加快兼并六国的步伐,秦国把矛头首先指向了位于中原要冲的韩魏两国。

          公元前294年,白起统率秦军进攻韩国,一举攻占新城,白起因功被封为左更(爵位名)。次年,韩、魏以公孙喜为主帅,率联军24万人进据伊阙迎击秦军。

          伊阙为韩、魏门户,两山对峙,伊水流经其间,望之若阙,地势险要。联军据险扼守,和秦军呈对峙态势。然而,联军各自为保存实力,互相推诿,不肯先战。

          这给了白起可乘之机。他采取了集中兵力、各个击破的战术;先设疑兵牵制联军主力韩军,然后集中兵力出其不意地猛攻魏军,一举将其歼灭,杀其主将犀武。随后立即转用兵力攻打韩军。韩军翼侧暴露,遭秦军夹击,溃败而逃。白起乘胜追击,又全歼韩军,俘韩将公孙喜。

          东汉时,为拱卫京师洛阳,伊阙关成为洛阳八关之一。隋唐之交,为讨伐王世充,李世民亲率重兵北据邙山,派将军史万宝率兵“自宜阳南据龙门”,方才顺利攻取洛阳。

          1948年3月,解放军首先拿下伊阙,继而解放洛阳。

          3、为博龙颜悦伊阙改龙门

          伊阙改称龙门,发生在隋炀帝杨广定都洛阳时。

          这里面还有一个故事。据《元和郡县图志》记载,建都洛阳前,隋炀帝亲率朝臣登上邙山,行至今老城以北邙山最高峰处,南望伊阙,目之所及,南北开阔,东西平坦,四周群山环抱构成天然屏障。“此非龙门耶?自古何因不建都于此?”隋炀帝大发感慨地说。

          闻此,众大臣一时面面相觑,不知如何作答。这时,有一个名叫苏威的大臣站了出来,巧妙地回答说:“自古非不知,以俟陛下。”听罢,杨广龙颜大悦。自此,伊阙便被改称龙门了。

          建都之事也很快被定了下来。随后,杨广日役丁200万人,“发大江以南五岭以北奇材异石,输之洛阳,又求海内嘉木异草,珍禽奇兽,以实园苑”,耗费无尽人力财力,费时一年,一座宫殿苑囿、巍峨壮丽的都城拔地而起。新的洛阳城有宫城、皇城和外郭城组成,其中,外郭城又叫大城,长35公里;皇城是文武衙门办公的地方;再往里是宫城,周长期5公里。

          4、自此,洛阳成为隋朝政治经济文化的中心。

          拱桥连两岸三景为一体

          作为洛阳的南大门,20世纪40年代以前,伊河上原有一座钢筋水泥大桥——中正桥。该桥由时任国民政府主席的林森提议修建,全长258.4米,桥面净宽6米,是当时洛阳到南阳、洛阳到界首(今位于安徽省西北部)两条营运线路的咽喉。1944年5月,日寇入侵洛阳时,为了不被日军利用,中正桥被守军炸毁,只剩下桥墩和部分桥身。

          抗战胜利后,伊河上又架起一座简易木桥,但每到汛期都会被河水淹没,居民出行受阻,于是,再建设一座大型跨伊河的大桥,成为当务之急。

          1960年5月,总投资400多万元的龙门大桥正式动工,并于1962年11月建成通车。该桥全长303.8米,两岸引线长1309米,桥面车道净宽10米,两侧人行道宽各1.5米,是沟通龙门东西两山以及洛阳至豫西南各地交通的重要通道。

          自此,龙门石窟、香山寺和白园三处景点有机融合为一体。站在石拱桥上,西山巍巍、白园幽幽、水声潺潺,使人仿佛置身世外桃源,每日有大量游客前来游览。

          2000年,龙门石窟被列入世界文化遗产名录。(记者 姜春晖 文/图)

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