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        中原古道研究会

        汉函谷关:两京故道第一门户(城市记忆·洛阳八关)

        发布日期:2016-07-10???点击量:

          汉函谷关是我国古代两京故道的重要关隘。随着汉函谷关国家考古遗址公园的申报,洛阳八关重回人们视野。

          据有关史料记载,早在周公营造洛邑时,就在边境四周设关口3个,以达到拱卫京师的目的。东汉末年,为抵御黄巾起义军,汉灵帝更是在洛阳四周设立伊阙、广成、太谷等八关,置八关都尉,史称“八关都邑”。今起开设《城市记忆·洛阳八关》栏目,为您介绍洛阳八关的沧桑历史,敬请关注。

         

          汉函谷关始建于汉武帝元鼎三年(公元前114年),由汉楼船将军杨仆所建,至今已有2100余年。作为洛阳通往西方的“第一门户”,汉函谷关东指洛都、西望长安,素有“一夫当关,万夫莫开”的美誉,为“洛阳八关”之首。

          1、“耻为关外人”楼船将军徙关

          其实,我国历史上曾有过3个函谷关。

          据有关史料记载,一为秦关,位于今河南省三门峡灵宝市北边;二为汉关,即位于我市新安县的汉函谷关;三为魏关,该关建于曹魏时期,位置今已不详。

          秦关始建于西周,原为桃林塞,为虢国地。战国中期,该要塞为秦所得,秦便在要塞之东筑关城,名东关。因东至新安,西至潼关,凡四百八十里,其地多流河翼岸巍峰插天,绝谷深委,峻坂纡回,统称“崤函”。关城在谷中,深险如函,故称“函谷关”。

          说起来,汉函谷关是西汉楼船将军杨仆“搬来”的。

          杨仆是西汉名将,一生戎马倥偬,南征北战,追随汉武帝开疆拓土,弹压部族叛乱,为巩固西汉政权立下汗马功劳,被任命为楼船将军。

          杨仆祖籍为今新安县铁门镇,去秦关三百里,而“耻为关外民”。因此,他上书汉武帝,决定以家财为资,徙关于新安县城东;汉武帝“意亦好广阔”,于是便答应了杨仆的请求。随后,杨仆倾其家财,带领部众及门人,按秦关模样,在新安县城东“克隆”了一个函谷关,即汉函谷关。

          2、扼守两京咽喉丝路重要门户

          东汉时,由于汉光武帝刘秀定都洛阳,汉函谷关就成了洛阳通往长安的西大门。汉灵帝增置八关都尉时,汉函谷关成为八关之首,军事要塞地位进一步巩固。

          由于地位重要,许多帝王和文人墨客曾登临汉函谷关,为汉函谷关留下了诸多“文气”。

          据史料记载,东汉光武帝曾在关内设大驾宫。北周保定五年(公元565年)十月,改汉函谷关为通洛防,大兴土木予以修缮,大将贺若敦(洛阳人)为中州刺史镇关防。唐显庆五年(公元660年),唐高宗和武则天曾在汉函谷关附近兴建合璧宫。

          现在的汉函谷关是1923年由张钫出资重修的,主要包括关楼、鸡鸣台、望气台、南关墙、北关墙等。

          近日,我们来到汉函谷关时,看到其关楼与鸡鸣台、望气台的平面呈“H”形分布。其中,关楼在其西;鸡鸣台、望气台在其东侧,南北对峙,中间的通关古道宽约50米。

          关楼遗址为砖石结构,分上、中、下三层。其中,下层为平坛,坛高9米,南北长25米,东西宽20米,坛下中部为拱形东西通道;中层为砖混结构,是四面相通呈“十”字形对称的窑洞,洞宽2.6米、高2.9米,每室壁间各嵌“无字碑”两通(共8通),地面灰陶方砖,角对角、缝对缝,铺设考究。室外设平台,四门各有石联,上层已经坍塌。

          鸡鸣台位于古道北侧,东西残长约30米,南北残宽约20米,残高15米;望气台位于古道南侧,东西残长约30米,南北残宽约25米,残高约15米。

          南、北关墙均为东西向长条形。其中,北关墙残长315米,宽8.5米至20米,东侧与鸡鸣台相连;南关墙长约300米,宽8米至23米,东侧与望气台相连。

          3、借力丝路申遗雄关迎来新生

          作为我国古代两京故道的重要门户,汉函谷关于2009年被列为省级文物?;さノ?,并被确定为我国丝绸之路跨国申遗的项目之一。

          为配合丝绸之路申遗,自去年6月起,市文物工作者对汉函谷关进行了大规模的考古调查和发掘。截至目前,共钻探面积13.9万平方米,发掘面积3000余平方米。

          通过此次发掘,市文物工作者在今望气台南侧,分别发现了南北向、东西向城墙各一段,并将其分别命名为关城东墙和关城南墙。其中,关城东墙东西宽约35米,残存高度约3.5米,向南延伸至皂涧河(涧河支流)北侧。另外,在关城南墙上还发现了一个用石块垒砌的坡道,初步推测应该是城墙的排水设施。

          同时,在汉函谷关关城内还发现了房屋基址遗址、排水渠以及数十枚函谷关遗址的代表性遗物——“关”字瓦当等。其中,关城房屋基址遗址位于遗址区西南侧,成组排列;房址南侧,靠近皂涧河的地方发现有石头垒砌的排水渠,房址北侧有水井。

          据此初步推断,汉函谷关绝不仅仅是一座关隘,而是一个由关城、道路、障塞、烽燧等设施组成的复杂的关防体系的一座城。

          除此之外,新安县文物部门还实施了汉函谷关遗址?;ふ故竟こ?,除加固了关楼和关墙等遗址外,还?;ふ故玖艘欢魏捍缆?、新建了游客服务中心等,旅游功能不断完善,还正积极申报国家考古遗址公园。

          借力丝路申遗,千年雄关——汉函谷关迎来了新生。(记者 姜春晖 文/图 )

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